When any tank is built and put into service, some amount of settlement occurs. The settlement is only problematic when it exceeds the tolerance for the tank or for the piping connected to the tank. The amount that a tank will settle is dependent on the tank dimensions and applied loads (e.g., the diameter and the weight of the tank and its contents) and the properties of the underlying soils. In addition to excessive settlement, bearing capacity failure may occur where weak soils are present. This happens when the underlying soils cannot carry the load from the tank, and the ground shears or ruptures, causing either a rotation of the tank or punching of the tank into the ground. While Controlled Modulus Columns (CMC)® rigid inclusions have been used to support many different types of tanks, vessels, and silos, this paper focuses on steel tanks that are typically used to store liquid oil/petroleum and chemical products.

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